Variance Calculation in SAP PP


Variance Calculation in SAP PP

Understanding Production Performance with Variance Calculation in SAP PP

In the manufacturing world, keeping an eye on production costs is crucial. But how do you know if your production process is running efficiently? This is where variance calculation in SAP Production Planning (PP) comes in.

What is Variance Calculation?

Variance calculation compares the actual costs incurred during production with the planned or target costs. SAP PP uses standard cost estimates for materials, labor, and overhead to determine the target cost of producing a finished good. The variance calculation then identifies any deviations between these planned costs and the reality of the production process.

Why is Variance Calculation Important?

By analyzing variances, manufacturers can gain valuable insights into their production efficiency. Variances can highlight areas for improvement, such as:

  • Material price fluctuations
  • Inefficient use of materials or labor
  • Production delays or machine downtime
  • Inaccurate planning or costing estimates

Identifying these variances allows manufacturers to take corrective actions and improve their bottom line.

Types of Variances in SAP PP

SAP PP calculates variances across different categories, including:

  • Input Price Variance is the difference between the actual price paid for materials and the standard price used in costing.
  • Input Quantity Variance: Variation between the actual quantity of materials used and the planned quantity.
  • Resource Usage Variance: The difference between the actual time or effort spent on production activities and the standard time allowed.
  • Output Price Variance: The difference between the actual selling price of the finished good and the planned price.
  • Lot-Size Variance: The additional cost incurred due to producing a batch size different from the planned size.

Calculating Variances in SAP PP

SAP PP offers various functionalities for variance calculation, including:

  • Transaction Code KKS1: This allows you to collectively calculate variances for multiple production orders.
  • Production Order Settlement: A final variance calculation is performed when a production order is completed.
  • Costing Reports: SAP provides various reports that detail variances by category and production order.

Taking Action with Variance Analysis

Once variances are identified, it’s crucial to analyze the root cause. This might involve investigating material price changes, production bottlenecks, or deviations from planned processes. By understanding the “why” behind the variances, manufacturers can take corrective actions, such as:

  • Renegotiating material prices with suppliers.
  • Implementing process improvements to reduce waste.
  • Updating standard costs to reflect current conditions.


Variance calculation in SAP PP is a powerful tool for monitoring production efficiency and identifying areas for cost optimization. By analyzing variances and taking corrective actions, manufacturers can improve their production processes, reduce costs, and ultimately boost their profitability.

You can find more information about SAP  PP  in this  SAP PP Link



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